Valley oak, California white oak. Patriarch of the western oaks; a large, graceful, deciduous tree with a rounded crown and often broader than tall, growing 50-70’ tall and wide. Features a short trunk and large arching limbs. Deep green, lobed leaves are shed in autumn. Acorns are mahogany or chestnut brown in color. Bark is dark brown or ashen gray and heavily fissured. White oak favors hot valleys away from fog and ocean influence. Will take considerable shade, but prefers full sun. Best in deep, rich soils of deltas and flood plains and will grow rapidly once its tap root reaches ground water. Adapted to long summer seasons of drought and heat as well as extreme moisture but is highly sensitive to construction and urban landscaping activities that have disturbed soil grades, microclimates and natural moisture conditions around established specimens. Long, drooping outer branches sometimes sweep the ground. “Oak balls”, which result from insect activity, are lightweight, corky spheres the size of tennis balls. They turn black and tan before falling and do not harm the tree. Occasional to infrequent water once established. Hardy to 0F. California interior valleys; Sacramento and San Joaquin, Sierra foothills and Coast Ranges away from direct coastal influence.